Brazilian Foreign Trade of Flowers and Ornamental Plants, 1997-2002

            The world production of ornamental plants and flowers covers an estimated area of 190 thousand hectares. This market moves amounts nearing US$ 16 billion per year at producer level, US$ 44 billion per year at retail level, and values exceeding US$ 5 billion in terms of exports (Motos, 2003)5.
            In 1999, the intercountry trade of floriculture products moved US$ 7,9 billion, the main exporters being Holland (51,5%) and Colombia (6,9%). In this scenario, Brazil ranked 31st, accounting for a mere 0,2 percent of the global market (Pathfast, 2001)6.
            The Brazilian Export Program of Ornamental Plants and Flowers (FloraBrasilis), created by the Brazilian government in October 2000 through both the Brazilian Export Promotion Agency (APEX) and the Brazilian Institute of Floriculture (IBRAFLOR) (FloraBrasilis, 2001)3, had the initial ambitious target of raising export from US$ 11 million in 2000 to US$ 80 million per year until 2003 (Programa, 2003)7, later postponed to 2004 (Vários, 2003)8 and to 2005 (Farid, 2003)2.
            How to face this challenge? One way forward must be through an objective analysis of the historic and detailed balance of the figures in this market so as to improve the return index of campaigns disseminating Brazilian products and suit them in the mid and long terms.
            This research has a twofold focus: to quantify the main products in the Brazilian export agenda for ornamental plants and flowers, and to identify the country’s main commercial partners, thus making way for a better understanding of the sector
            Data from1997 to 2002 data were used from the Secretariat of Foreign Trade (SECEX) of the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC) (Ministério, 2003)4 detailing the products from the import & export agenda for live plants and floriculture products by category and by economic bloc and classified according to Chapter 6 of the South Cone Common Terminology (NCM) (details are shown on Table 1).

Brazilian Trade of Floriculture Products, 1997-2002

            The total value of the exports of live plants and floriculture products over 1997-2002, by Position, reveals different degrees of participation: the group encompassing ornamental’s nursery plants (NCM 0602) represents 56% of the total value; the group of bulbs (NCM 0601) 28%, and the foliage (NCM 0604) and bouquet flowers groups (NCM 0603) represent, each, 8% of the Brazilian export value. In this period, although the total balance of the Brazilian trade of live plants and floriculture products was always positive, the thorough analysis, i.e. by Position, registered deficit in the flowers for bouquets category (Table 2).

Bulbs, Tuber and Rhizomes

            Brazilian exports of bulbs, tuber and rhizomes over 1997-2002 grew from US$ 2,9 million to US$ 4,0 million, the main commercial partner being the European Union which, in 2002, imported from Brazil US$ 3,6 million, accounting for 90,4% of the total exported. The remaining percentage was occupied by the NAFTA, the MERCOSUR and Chile. Brazilian imports experienced steady growth in the period, increasing from US$ 695 thousand in 1997 to US$ 2,4 million in 2002. In 2002, exclusively, the European Union (99,8%) and the NAFTA (0,2%) were the commercial partners so, in this case, the former was Brazil’s main partner (Table 3).

Table 1 - List of Products that compose the Chapter 06 of the South Cone Common Terminology (NCM), Live Plants and Floriculture Products

Position Sub-item Live Plants and Floriculture Products
Class1
  0601.10.00 Bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, etc. in vegetative rest
1
  0601.20.00 Bulbs, tubers, etc. in flower, nursery plants of chicory
1
0601   Bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, etc.  
  0602.10.00 Not-rooted stakes and grafts
1
  0602.20.00 Trees, bushes of edible fruits 
1
  0602.30.00 Rhododendron and azaleas, grafted or not
1
  0602.40.00 Rosebushes, grafted or not
1
  0602.90.10 Mycelium of Mushrooms 
2
  0602.90.81 Young plants of sugar-cane 
2
  0602.90.21 Young plants of orchids
1
  0602.90.29 Young plants of other ornamental plants
1
  0602.90.82 Young plants of grapevine 
2
  0602.90.83 Young plants of coffee 
2
  0602.90.89 Young plants of other plants 
2
  0602.90.90 Other live plants
2
0602   Young plants of ornamental plants, of orchids, etc.   
  0603.10.00 Fresh cut flowers for bouquets, etc.
1
  0603.90.00 Dry cut flowers for bouquets, etc.
1
0603   Cut flowers for bouquets  
  0604.10.00 Mosses and lichens, for bouquets or ornamentation
1
  0604.91.00 Foliage, leaves, branches of plants, fresh, for bouquets, etc.
1
  0604.99.00 Foliage, leaves, branches of plants, dry, for bouquets, etc.
1
0604   Leaves, foliages and mosses for floriculture  
1Class 1: Sub-item related to floriculture products;
Class 2: Sub-item related to live plants.
Source: Classificação, 20021.

Table 2 – Commercial Balance of Flowers and Ornamental Plants, Brazil, 1997-2002
(in US$ FOB)

Year
A – Bulbs, tubers and rhizomes
Export
Var. %
Import
Var. %
Balance
1997
2.935.866
-
695.189
-
2.240.677
1998
3.522.670
20
922.383
33
2.600.287
1999
4.051.583
15
1.140.619
24
2.910.964
2000
3.197.158
-21
1.466.628
29
1.730.530
2001
3.346.885
5
1.818.930
24
1.527.955
2002
4.004.551
20
2.392.342
32
1.612.209
Total A
21.058.713
-
8.436.091
-
12.622.622
Year
B - Young plants of ornamentals and live plants 
Export
Var. %
Import
Var. %
Balance
1997
6.327.544
-
1.839.274
-
4.488.270
1998
6.986.577
10
2.718.677
48
4.267.900
1999
7.261.341
4
2.397.932
-12
4.863.409
2000
6.666.533
-8
3.217.248
34
3.449.285
2001
7.493.336
12
3.745.006
16
3.748.330
2002
8.324.426
11
4.464.470
19
3.859.956
Total B
43.059.757
-
18.382.607
-
24.677.150
Year
C – Cut flowers for bouquets 
Export
Var. %
Import
Var. %
Balance
1997
1.288.884
-
3.167.487
-
-1.878.603
1998
1.156.748
-10
4.241.008
34
-3.084.260
1999
1.252.485
8
1.883.025
-56
-630.540
2000
443.098
-65
1.665.672
-12
-1.222.574
2001
554.891
25
1.492.737
-10
-937.846
2002
1.226.391
121
1.313.688
-12
-87.297
Total C
5.922.497
-
13.763.617
-
-7.841.120
Year
D - Leaves, foliages and mosses for floriculture
Export
Var. %
Import
Var. %
Balance
1997
452.696
-
173.950
-
278.746
1998
376.134
-17
65.974
-62
310.160
1999
558.255
48
55.333
-16
502.922
2000
1.577.553
183
49.227
-11
1.528.326
2001
1.891.595
20
37.747
-23
1.853.848
2002
1.466.799
-22
40.227
7
1.426.572
Total D
6.323.032
-
422.458
-
5.900.574
Year
E – Live plants and floriculture products 
Export
Var. %
Import
Var. %
Balance
1997
11.004.990
-
5.875.900
-
5.129.090
1998
12.042.129
9
7.948.042
35
4.094.087
1999
13.123.664
9
5.476.909
-31
7.646.755
2000
11.884.342
-9
6.398.775
17
5.485.567
2001
13.286.707
12
7.094.420
11
6.192.287
2002
15.022.167
13
8.210.727
16
6.811.440
Total E
76.363.999
-
41.004.773
-
35.359.226
Source: Ministério, 20034.
 

Table 3 - Export and Import of Brazilian Bulbs, Tubers and Rhizomes, by Main Destiny and Origin, 1997-2002
(in US$ FOB)

 
Blocks and Countries
 
NAFTA1
European Union2
MERCOSUR3
Chile
Others
Total
Export        
 
 
1997
218.107
2.587.166
65.377
43.616
21.600
2.935.866
1998
203.572
3.158.358
95.160
62.480
3.100
3.522.670
1999
327.621
3.635.337
67.052
18.654
2.919
4.051.583
2000
310.152
2.799.469
70.335
13.598
3.604
3.197.158
2001
440.128
2.824.145
37.022
22.593
22.997
3.346.885
2002
344.470
3.620.180
22.046
17.855
0
4.004.551
Import
1997
4.245
639.183
0
11.126
40.635
695.189
1998
0
910.740
0
1.096
10.547
922.383
1999
0
1.115.171
0
0
25.448
1.140.619
2000
2.873
1.444.162
0
0
19.593
1.466.628
2001
0
1.811.348
0
0
7.582
1.818.930
2002
5.548
2.386.794
0
0
0
2.392.342
1United States, Canada, Mexico and Porto Rico.
2Alemanha, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Italy, Holland, United Kingdom, Sweden, etc.
3Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil.
Source: Ministério, 20034.

Nursery Plants of Ornamentals and Other Live Plants

            The export value for this category, occupying the largest slice in the live plants and floriculture products item, increased from US$ 6,3 million in 1997 to US$ 8,3 million in 2002, being the main buyers the European Union (80,5% of the exported value) and Japan, whose imports ranged from 10,6% to 14,8% of the total Brazil exports. Regarding imports, Chile is the second major supplier of this item, after the European Union. The blocs and countries herein analyzed account for 99,7% of the total value of Brazilian exports and 76% of the imports in 2002 (Table 4).

Cut Flowers for Bouquets

            The exports value of flowers for bouquets, sharply slumped in 2000 and 2001, recovered growth in 2002, reaching US$ 1,2 million and returning to the 1999 levels. As a result, the commercial deficit of this category lowered to US$ 87,2 thousand. (Table 2). Brazil basically imports from two Latin American countries: Colombia and Ecuador, having imported in 2002, respectively 82,1% and 17,1%. The main buyers of Brazilian products are the NAFTA and the European Union which, in 2002, imported respectively, 51,6% and 43,5% of the value of Brazilian sales abroad. Thus the economic bloc herein analyzed encompassed almost 100% of the value moved both in exports and exports (Table 5).

Table 4 - Export and Import of Brazilian Young plants of Ornamentals and Live Plants, by Main Destiny and Origin, 1997-2002
(in US$ FOB)

<T

Data de Publicação: 05/12/2003

Autor(es): Ikuyo Kiyuna (ikuyo@iea.sp.gov.br) Consulte outros textos deste autor
Silene Maria de Freitas (silene.freitas@sp.gov.br) Consulte outros textos deste autor
Maria de Lourdes Barros Camargo (mlcamargo@iea.sp.gov.br) Consulte outros textos deste autor

 

 

 

Item
Blocks and Countries
NAFTA1
European Union2
MERCOSUR3
Japan
Colombia
Ecuador
Chile
Swiss
Others
Total
Export    
1997
74.120
4.964.143
557.753
710.754
0
4.700
0
2.182
13.892
6.327.544
1998
63.595
5.444.961
642.558
791.950
0
13.232
314
1.396
28.571
6.986.577
1999
86.215
5.707.336
473.554
975.449
0
5.097
0
0
13.690
7.261.341
2000
69.924
5.149.965
434.201
989.579
0
0
0
504
22.360
6.666.533
2001
264.048
5.709.539
697.844
795.512
300
0
809
8.050
17.234
7.493.336
2002
447.115
6.698.183
241.406
896.420
0
0
9.835
5.190
26.277
8.324.426
Import    
1997
139.681
1.311.002
18.226
11.698
11.367
0
87.873
0
259.427
1.839.274
1998
157.868
1.800.479
149.454
40.985
16.528
0
79.317
0
474.046
2.718.677
1999
118.268
1.471.712
195.071
9.104
40.587
3.000
79.385
0
480.805